Let’s move towards disease free Pakistanadmin
Pakistan is the country which is at high risk of epidemics due to communicable diseases. An increase in the ratio of the spread of communicable diseases like COVID-19, hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria, dengue fever etc is observed in Pakistan.
There are various factors which resulted in the spread of infectious diseases in Pakistan. Following are some of the highlighted reasons due to which transmissible diseases usually spread in Pakistan:
- Over population
- Poor sanitation
- Poor socio economic condition
- Un safe drinking water
- Low health awareness
- Inadequate vaccination coverage
Our beloved motherland demands a healthy and prosperous Pakistan from us. On this Independence Day let’s show some patriotism by taking an initiative towards a disease free Pakistan.
To make Pakistan a safe land with no hazardous diseases we all should show some responsibility. Being the citizens of this accomplished land we are authorized for its well being in all ways. It is compulsory for the progress and prosperity of Pakistan that every individual accommodating here must be healthy and well aware of contagious diseases.
A little effort is done here to aware the community regarding contagious disease of Hepatitis.
Hepatitis, the silent killer:
Pakistan is badly affected by Hepatitis. A large community of Pakistan is suffering from it. It is also called a silent killer because it spreads too fast and in chronic phase symptoms may not appear at early age.
Hepatitis in Pakistan:
After Egypt Pakistan is the country with highest hepatitis cases. It is a deadly disease causing large number of deaths. After tuberculosis it causes highest number of deaths.
In Pakistan almost 12 million people are suffering from viral hepatitis. A community of Pakistan is UN diagnosed of it and transmitting the virus on a large scale.
Chronic hepatitis including B and C are most common in Pakistan.
What is Hepatitis?
It is an inflammation of the liver which can result in liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and damage.
Causing agents of Hepatitis:
As discussed above hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver. Then we must know the agents which could cause liver inflammation. Following are some of the causing agents:\
- Auto immunity
Types of Hepatitis:
An overview is given as follows:
There are various types of hepatitis caused by different viruses. These can be blood borne or water borne.
There are five main types of viral hepatitis given as follows:
Hepatitis A is caused by Hepatitis A virus and transmits through fecal oral contact with an infectious person and through ingestion of contaminated food and water. Almost every person recovers from it with a life long immunity.
Hepatitis B is caused by Hepatitis B virus and transmits from mother to child during birth or breast feeding or through other body secretions. It can be fatal if untreated and cause liver damage and liver cancer.
Hepatitis C is caused by Hepatitis C virus, the virus can cause both acute and chronic condition ranging in severity from a mild illness of few days and weeks to a life long illness. It is the major cause of liver cancer.
Hepatitis D is caused by Hepatitis Delta virus resulting in the swelling of liver which cause liver impairment and cancer. It is transmitted through body secretions.
Like Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E is also waterborne means it can be transmitted through ingestion of contaminated water. It is caused by Hepatitis E virus.
It is a genetic disorder in which liver cells start to degenerate and cause liver inflammation.
Alcohol damages liver cells and result in liver inflammation.
General symptoms of Hepatitis:
Following are the general symptoms:
- Sudden nausea and vomiting
- Jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes)
- Loss of appetite and weight
- Abdominal pain
- Joint pain
- Clay colored bowel movements
In case of the presence of above mentioned symptoms and signs a person should not show any negligence and go for the diagnostic tests as early as possible.
A brief discussion of the hepatitis tests is as follows:
Liver Function Test:
At first to check the proper functioning of liver following tests should be carried out.
Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT):
An enzyme found in the liver. When liver is damaged it is released in the blood with prominent signs of liver damage like jaundice. The results of ALT are compared with AST to check the cause of liver damage.
Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST):
It is also an enzyme found in the liver and other organs like heart. An increase in the level of AST also indicates liver damage but this test is not specific for liver damage.
Alkaline Phosphate (ALP):
It is an enzyme related to bile ducts and other tissues throughout the body. ALP is often increased when bile ducts are blocked.
It is the breakdown product of old RBCs and processed by Liver. When liver is damaged it get accumulated in the blood causing jaundice and dark urine.
The main protein of liver. With loss of liver function the level of albumin decreases.
As liver forms all proteins so with loss of liver function the level of total protein also decreases.
There are various screening test kits available to diagnose different kinds of viral hepatitis including B and C.
PCR the polymerized chain reaction test is the most advanced way of detecting viruses causing various hazardous diseases.
In case of Hepatitis PCR can be used to detect the presence of virus as well as the exact amount of virus present in the blood.
To eradicate this deadly disease from our esteemed land we must take a responsibility and go for diagnosis with the help of various hepatitis tests.
Our health should be our main concern because if we are healthy then Pakistan will be healthy. A healthy and disease free Pakistan can prosper and flourish well. On this Independence Day let’s move towards a Hepatitis free Pakistan, a disease free Pakistan.